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Examples for

# Step-by-Step Chemistry

### Chemical Conversions

#### Follow the steps for unit conversion:

### Molecules

#### Calculate molecular mass:

#### Compute the elemental composition of molecules:

#### Count the total number of particles:

### Kinetics

#### Construct the reaction rate expression:

#### Build the rate-of-conversion expression:

### Colligative Properties

#### Compute the boiling point elevation for a solution:

#### Find the freezing point depression for a solution:

#### Determine the van 't Hoff factor for a solution:

### Atoms

#### Assemble a ground-state orbital diagram:

#### Count the number of valence electrons:

#### Find the wavelength of a photon from a CO2(g) laser:

#### Build the nuclide symbol:

### Chemical Reactions

#### Learn how to balance a chemical reaction:

#### Find the required amount of reactants:

#### Determine the theoretical yield:

#### Compute the percent yield:

### Structure & Bonding

#### Get a step-by-step procedure to draw the Lewis structures of molecules:

#### Compute oxidation states of chemicals:

#### Determine orbital hybridization one step at a time:

#### Use Hückel's rule to determine aromaticity:

### Chemical Solutions

#### Prepare chemical solutions:

#### Prepare a dilute solution:

#### Find the anti-knock index for gasoline:

### Thermodynamics

#### Compute the change in internal energy:

### Equilibrium

#### Learn to build an equilibrium constant:

#### Assemble a reaction quotient:

### Gases

#### Calculate molar properties for gases:

#### Determine the amount of a gas:

### Concentrations

#### Compute the molarity of a solution:

#### Find the molality of a solution:

#### Determine the mass fraction for a mixture:

#### Evaluate the amount fraction for a solution: